How Much of
the Quran Can/Should We Understand?
Is the Quran meant for everyone to understand? Or are some
parts inaccessible to mere human beings?
Verse 3:7 is one of the most commonly mistranslated verses; it
is extremely important, since it deals with these very questions.
Different interpretations of this verse can lead to two totally
different conceptions of Islam! Both Yusuf Ali and Pickthall reflect
the majority’s view on behalf of “not
understanding,” while Shakir prefers the minority view of
! Disputed passage:
The traditional rendering suggests that some Quranic verses can never
be understood fully.
|He it is Who has
sent down to thee the Book: in it are verses basic or fundamental (of
established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are
allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part
thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its
hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meaning
except God. And those who are firmly endowed by
knowledge say: ‘we believe in the Book; the whole of it is
from our Lord:’ and none will grasp the Message except men of
||He it is Who
hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture wherein are clear
revelations – they are the substance of the Book –
and others (which are) allegorical. But those in whose hearts is doubt
pursue, forsooth, that which is allegorical seeking (to cause)
dissension by seeking to explain it. None knoweth its
explanation save Allah. And those who are of sound
instruction say: We believe therein; the whole is from our Lord; but
only men of understanding really heed. (3:7)
||He it is Who has
revealed the Book to you; some of its verses are decisive, they are the
basis of the Book, and others are allegorical; then as for those in
whose hearts there is perversity they follow the part of it which is
allegorical, seeking to mislead and seeking to give it (their own)
interpretation. but none knows its interpretation except
Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge say:
We believe in it, it is all from our Lord; and none do mind except
those having understanding. (3:7)
||He is the One
who sent down to you the book, from which there are definite signs;
they are the essence of the book; and others, which are
multiple-meaning. As for those who have disease in their hearts, eager
to cause confusion and eager to derive their interpretation, they will
follow what is multiple-meaning from it. But none knows their
meaning except God and those who are well founded in knowledge;
they say, “We acknowledge it, all is from our
Lord.” None will remember except the people of intellect.
The Arabic word we have translated as “multiple
meanings” is mutashabihat. The word
comes from shabaha (“to became
The word can be confusing for a novice. Verse 39:23, for
instance, uses mutashabihat for the entire Quran,
referring to its overall similarity — in other words, its
consistency. In a narrower sense, however, mutashabihat
refers to all verses which can be understood in more than one way. The
various meanings or implications require some special qualities from
the person listening to or reading the Quran: an attentive mind, a
positive attitude, contextual perspective, the patience necessary for
research, and so forth.
It is one of the intriguing features of the Quran that the
verse about “mutashabih” verses of the Quran is
itself mutashabih — that is, possessing multiple meanings.
The word in question, for instance, can mean
“similar,” as we have seen; it can mean
“possessing multiple meanings;” it can also mean
“allegorical” (where one single, clearly
identifiable element represents another single, clearly identifiable
As you may have noticed, interpretation of the last part of
3:7 depends on how one punctuates the verse. (There is no punctuation
in the original Arabic text.)
If one stops after the word “God,” then
one will assume, as centuries of Sunni and Shiite scholars have, that
even those who possess deep levels of knowledge will never be able to
understand the “mutashabih” verses. However, if the
sentence does not stop there, the meaning will change to the opposite:
Those who possess knowledge will be able to
understand the meaning of allegorical or multiple-meaning verses.
Here are five reasons for why we prefer the second
understanding of this verse.
REASON ONE: The passage clearly emphasizes the unhealthy
intentions of those who fail to understand multiple-meaning verses.
With the disease of doubt in their hearts, they try to confuse others
by focusing on their own faulty interpretations of these verses. We
think that the passage emphasizes this point because the Quran tells us
elsewhere that only sincere people possess the qualities necessary to
understand the Quran (as emphasized in 17:46; 18:57; and 54:17).
REASON TWO: The Quran tells us repeatedly that it is easy to
understand. (It does so at many points, including 5:15; 11:1; 26:195;
54:17; and 55:1-2.). If one punctuates this verse in the traditional
way, there is an apparent contradiction – the Quran is, at
least in some places, impossible for any human
being to understand — and Muslims maintain that the Quran
does not contradict itself.
We believe the Quran broadcasts a very clear, coherent
message. However, there is sometimes a problem with our receiver. If
our receiver does not hear the broadcast or cannot understand it well,
then something is wrong with our receiver and we have to check it. If
the signal is weak, we need to recharge our batteries, or reset our
antennas. If we do not receive a clear message, we need to set our
tuning to the right station in order to get rid of the noises and
interference from other sources. We may, of course, ask for some help
from knowledgeable people or experts for this task. If the receiver
does not work at all, then we have to make a sincere effort to fix the
broken parts. However, if we believe that the problem is in the
broadcast, then nobody can help us.
REASON THREE: It is beyond dispute that the Quran encourages
Muslims to study its words with patience. It advises us not to rush
into understanding without sufficient knowledge (20:114). Nevertheless,
it claims to be easy to understand (see REASON TWO, above). This,
however, is not a contradictory position!
Experience with the book suggests that both of these
statements are accurate. Although it can be explored for a lifetime
without conquering all of its subtleties, the Quran, as a whole, is
in fact quite easy to understand, revolving as it does around three
- There is only one God.
- This life is a test.
- There will be an accounting for each individual after death.
We know that the Quran really is comprehensible and
worthy of sustained, careful study, just as it promises.
Whoever opens his/her mind and heart as a monotheist and takes the time
to study it, will understand it, and that this understanding will be
enough for salvation. Such people will also be inspired to explore it
deeply, and will find ample rewards for doing so.
REASON FOUR: In order to acknowledge all
the verses of the Quran, one does not need to be deeply rooted in
knowledge. To be an “acknowledging person” is a
sufficient condition to acknowledge all the verses. However, one needs
to have deep knowledge of the Quran in order to understand
“mutashabih” (multiple-meaning) verses accurately.
Therefore, 3:7 mentions a narrow category (those who are deeply rooted
in knowledge) in relation to those multiple-meaning verses.
REASON FIVE: If we follow the orthodox punctuation and
translation of 3:7, then, we must, by logical extension, establish a
clear definition of what the
“mutashabih” verses are … in
order to avoid trying vainly to understand them or teaching others
based on them. We thus need a definitive list of the
“mutashabih” verses in order to avoid being among
those who are condemned in this verse. There is a problem, however: No
one has ever been able to compile such a definitive list! What could
the criteria for the list possibly be? Surely one person’s
lack of understanding of a verse should not make a verse
“taboo” for all other people. If that were the
case, the lowest degree of understanding would be the common
denominator for understanding and interpreting the Quran! In this
Alice-in-Wonderland school of thought, there would be a perpetual race
Unless one is committed to determining the truth by majority
vote, then one may want to reflect upon the five reasons listed here
for interpreting the verse as we have.
(A side note: There are a few Sunni commentators who support
our understanding of this verse. For instance, the classic commentary
of al-Baydawi prefers this understanding. Please note that Yusuf Ali
also acknowledges this fact in the footnote of 3:7: “One
reading, rejected by the majority of Commentators, but accepted by
Mujahid and others, would not make a break at the point marked Waqfa
Lazim, but would run the two sentences together. In that
case the construction would run: ‘No one knows its hidden
meanings except God and those who are firm in knowledge. They
The Quranic description of the earth, the solar system, the
cosmos and the origin of the universe is centuries ahead of the time of
its first revelation. For instance, the Quran, delivered in the seventh
century C.E., states or implies that:
- Time is relative (70:4; 22:47).
- God created the universe from nothing (2:117).
- The earth and heavenly bodies were once a single point and
they were separated from each other by an explosion (21:30).
- The universe is continuously expanding (51:47).
- The universe was created in six days (stages) and the
conditions that made life possible on earth took place in the last four
stages (50:38; 41:10).
- The stage before the creation of the earth is described as
a gas nebula (41:11).
- Planet earth is floating in an orbit (27:88; 21:33).
- The earth is round like an egg (10:24; 39:5; 79:30).
- Earth’s atmosphere acts like a protective shield
for the living creatures (21:32).
- Wind also pollinates plants (15:22).
- The creation of living creatures follows an evolutionary
system (15:28-29; 24:45; 32:7-9; 71:14-7).
- The earliest biological creatures were incubated inside
flexible layers of clay (15:26).
- The stages of human development in the womb are detailed
- Our biological life span is coded in our genes (35:11).
- Photosynthesis is a recreation of energy stored through
- The atomic number, atomic weight and isotopes of Iron are
- Atoms of elements found on earth contain a maximum of seven
energy layers (65:12).
- The sound and vision of water and the action of eating
dates (which contain oxytocin) reduce labor pains (19:24-25).
- There is life (not necessarily intelligent) beyond earth
- The word Sabbath (seventh day) occurs exactly 7 times.
- The number of months in a year is stated as 12, and the
word Month (shahr) occurs exactly twelve times.
- The number of days in a year is not stated, but the word
Day (yawm) occurs exactly 365 times.
- A prophetic mathematical structure based on the number 19
implied in chapter 74 of the Quran was discovered in 1974 by the aid of
computer shows that the Quran is embedded with an interlocking
extraordinary mathematical system (I have written several Turkish and
yet-to-be-published English books on this subject).
And there’s more – much more. Many of the
signs/miracles mentioned in the Quran, for instance, represent the
ultimate goals of science and technology. The Quran relates that matter
(but not humans) can be transported at the speed of light (27:30-40);
that smell can be transported to remote places (12:94); that extensive
communication with animals is possible (27:16-17); that sleep, in
certain conditions, can slow down metabolism and increase life span
(18:25); and that the vision of blind people can be restored (3:49).
Does it make sense, then, that a book that displays such
astonishing knowledge of the physical universe would declare that the
earth is flat?
As for the shape of the earth, Yusuf Ali extends, Pickthall
spreads, and Shakir expands. Other traditional translations are
essentially no different. They extend, expand, or spread the earth.
! Disputed passage:
Traditional translations extend and spread the
|And the earth,
moreover, hath He extended (to a wide
||And after that
He spread the earth, (79:30)
||And the earth,
He expanded it after that. (79:30)
||And the earth
afterwards, he made it round like egg.
DISCUSSION OF 79:30
Almost all English translations of the Quran mistranslate the
word DaHY, a word that is still used for
“egg” among Arabic-speaking populations in North
Africa. Why? The answer can be found in the footnotes of some classic
commentaries of the Quran, which were written centuries ago.
Early commentators and translators of the verse were stuck on
the word DaHY, since it means (as we have
translated) egg. In the verse it is used as a transitive verb with the
third person pronoun Ha, which means “made it round like
egg” or literally “egged it.” But, the
commentators thought that the earth was flat!
Since they knew God’s word could not contain errors
or contradiction, they assumed their understanding of the verse must
have been wrong. Thus, they tried to interpret the description. They
argued that the word DaHY (egg) must have implied
maDHY (nest), and inferred that God meant
“nest” by the word “egg.”
Therefore, the earth is extended like a nest.
Early commentators had an excuse for reaching such a
conclusion, since they did not know that the earth was spherical and
slightly distended (like an egg); however, modern commentators of the
Quran have no excuse to parrot this medieval misunderstanding. They
should have known that the verse means what it says: the earth is
shaped like an egg. The external physical appearance of planet earth is
like an egg, and its cross-section displays geological layers similar
to egg. Not only is the earth egg-shaped and resembles an egg regarding
its layers, but so is its orbit around the sun. In fact, this is
Kepler’s famous First Law of Planetary Motion: the orbit of a
planet about a star is an ellipse, as opposed to a perfect circle.
it Obvious OR
is it Darkening, Scorching, Shriveling, and Burning?
Many verses in chapter 74 have been commonly misunderstood and
mistranslated. We have written a lengthy article titled, Which
One Do You See: Hell or Miracle?, exposing the problems in
traditional commentaries and translations. Here we will only pick a
sample from the lengthy list.
Verse 74:29 is very interesting and crucial in understanding
the rest of the chapter. Though it consists of only two words, this
verse is translated in several different ways. Here are some examples
from English translations:
! Disputed passage: Many
keywords in Chapter 74 have been mistranslated to describe the
punishment of Hell, while in reality they describe an intellectual
“darkening and changing the color of man”
“It shrivelleth the man”
”as it shrivels
“It scorches the mortal”.
“It scorches the mortal”
”it burns the skins of men.”
truth) visible to mortal man.”
“obvious to all the people.”
“obvious to humankind.”
DISCUSSION OF 74:29
The derivatives of the word LWH are used in the Quran to mean
a surface used for recording information, board, and flat wood; and
nowhere is it used to mean scorch or burn. Before the fulfillment of
the prophecy, translators and commentators of the Quran had difficulty
in understanding the simple meaning of this word and thus, resorted to
external sources and often odd meanings, such as scorch, or burn. In
fact, the drive to justify a particular meaning for some
“difficult” Quranic words is one of the many
reasons for fabricating hadith.
Those who do not know Arabic might think that the words are
difficult to understand and translate. In fact, the meaning of these
two words, LaWwaHa and BaSHaR
is very clear in the Quranic context. The word LaWwaHa,
which comes from the root LWH, is the sister of
the word LaWH (85:22) and its plural aLWaH.
The plural form aLWaH is used in verses 7:145,
150, 154 for the “tablets” given to Moses, and in
verse 54:13 for broad planks used by Noah to build his ark. The
medieval commentators, not knowing the mathematical implication of the
verses, mostly chose an unusual meaning for the word: scorching,
burning, shriveling, etc. Ironically, most of them did acknowledge the
obvious meaning of the word as “open board, tablet”
(See Baydawi, Fakhruddin Al-Razi, etc.). Few preferred the
“obvious” to the obscure. For instance, Muhammad
Asad, who had no idea of the mathematical code, preferred the most
obvious meaning. Rashad Khalifa who fulfilled the prophecy and
discovered the implication of the entire chapter reflected the same
obvious meaning. That “obvious” meaning, was
obscured by the smoke of “scorching fire” burning
in the imaginations of generations before him.
In 7:145; 7:150; 7:154, the word aLWaH,
the plural of LaWHa is used to depict the tablets
on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed. In 54:13 it is used to
describe the structure of the Noah’s ship made of wood panes.
In 85:22 the same word is used for the mathematically protected record
of the original version of the Quran. As for the LaWaHa
of 74:29, it is the amplified noun-adjective derived from the root of
the verb LWH, meaning open tablets, succeeding screens, obvious,
manifesto, or clearly and perpetually visible. Ironically, the Quran
uses different words to describe burning or scorching. For instance,
for burning, the derivatives of HaRaQa (2:266;
3:181; 7:5; 20:97; 21:68; 22:9; 22:22; 29:24; 75:10), or for scorching
the derivatives of SaLaYa ( 4:10; 4:30; 4:56;
4:115; 14:29; 17:18; 19:70; 27:7; 28:29; 29:31; 36:64; 38:56; 38:59;
38:163; 52:16; 56:94; 58:8; 69:31; 74: 26; 82:15; 83:16; 84:12; 87:12;
88:12; 92:15), or NaDaJa are used (4:56).
Again, we should note that the understanding of pre-1974
commentators was not without basis. Though their understanding did not
rely on the Quranic usage of the words, and created some problems (such
as explaining the verse 74:31), they had some justifiable excuses to
understand the way they understood. The word LaWaHa
also meant burn and BaSHaRa was another word for
skin in Arabic language. As I mentioned above, the multiple meanings of
these verses allowed the impatient pre-1974 generations to have an
understanding, though a temporary and not primarily intended one. In
fact, it was better for them to have patience and not rush to speculate
on these verses without knowledge (20:114; 75:16-19). It was the
computer generation that was destined to understand their real meaning
of the Message or a Fistful of Dirt?
Moses left his people with his brother Aaron and went to the
mountain to receive commandments from God. While at the presence of
God, Moses is lightly criticized for leaving his people behind:
“‘And what has caused you to rush ahead of
your people O Moses?’ He said: ‘They are following
in my footprints, and I came quickly to you my Lord so you would be
pleased.’ He said: ‘We have tested your people
after you left, and the Samarian misguided them.’”
However, God knew that Moses’ people were not
following his message. Taking advantage of Moses’ absence,
the Samarian tried and succeeded to a degree to revert Jews to the
religion of their Egyptian masters. Recognizing that many people
respond better to concrete and tangible objects rather than an abstract
idea of a transcendental God, the Samarian collected jewels and melted
them in a pot to form a calf (7:148). He produced calf statues, which
made sounds in the wind due to the craftily designed holes in their
bodies, a symbol for intercession. Samarian was proud of his knowledge
of human psychology, and he had the audacity to tell Moses the
! Disputed passage: Ignoring
reason, the context of the verse, and the semantics of the Quran,
traditional translations and commentaries create a bizarre story
through mistranslation of the words AThaR, and NaBaZa. To accommodate
the mistranslation, they also add several non-existing and non-implied
words, such as, “Muhammad,”
“Gabriel,” “Dust,” and
“I saw what they saw not: so I took a handful
(of dust) from the footprint of the Messenger, and threw it (into the
calf): thus did my soul suggest to me.” (20:96)
||He said: I
perceived what they perceive not, so I seized a handful
from the footsteps of the messenger, and then threw it in.
Thus my soul commended to me. (20:96)
||He said: I saw (Jibreel)
what they did not see, so I took a handful (of the dust)
from the footsteps of the messenger, then I threw it in the casting;
thus did my soul commend to me. (20:96)
“I perceived what they did not perceive, so I took a handful from the
teaching of the messenger, and I cast it away.
This is what my soul inspired me to do.” (20:96)
DISCUSSION OF 20:96
According to traditional translators and many who were
unknowingly influenced by them, Samarian possessed extraordinary
powers! According to the story that they all copy, the Samarian
secretly followed Moses and somehow was able to see the
Controller-messenger of God, Jibreel or Gabriel,
riding a horse. He thought that the dirt stepped on by the feet of Jibreel’s
horse must have had magical powers. So, the story goes, he collected
some dirt and took it back to where his people were dwelling. He mixed
the dirt with the melting jewelry and voila, the sound-making calf!
The word athar, which is mistranslated
as “footprint” or “footsteps,”
has the following meanings: trace, teaching, relics of knowledge,
remains, mark, footprint, memorial, etc. The Quran uses the word athar
to mean teaching or message (20:84; 37;70; 43:22-23). The meaning of
the word should have been clear from several verses before, where in
verse 20:84, it is used to mean “teaching.” God did
not ask Moses why he came alone; He questioned Moses about leaving his
people too early. Moses understood God’s
question—though the majority of translators did
not—and responded by saying that his people were following
his teaching. God informs him about Samarian’s plan to
mislead his people back to idolatry.
Skeptics Hang Themselves to the Ceiling?
The traditional rendering of verse 22:15 is so bad that it
becomes an absurdity, a joke. The amazing thing is that anyone who
studies the Quran should easily understand its meaning, since the
expressions are used in other verses and contexts. Instead of first
looking at the usage of words and expression in other parts of the
Quran, the traditional translators look for inspiration from the early
commentators who mostly relied heavily on hadith
hearsay. Regardless of the source, with the exception of a few, such as
Muhammad Asad, Muhammad Ali, and Rashad Khalifa, many translations have
duplicated the bizarre and absurd traditional rendering.
! Disputed passage:
Traditional translations insert non-existing words and
produce a myriad of absurd and hilarious challenges.
|If any think
that Allah will not help him (His Messenger)
in this world and the Hereafter, let him stretch out a
rope to the ceiling and cut (himself) off: then let him
see whether his plan will remove that which enrages (him)! (22:15).
||Whoso is wont to
think (through envy) that Allah will not give him (Muhammad)
victory in the world and the Hereafter (and is enraged at the thought
of his victory), let him stretch a rope up to the roof
(of his dwelling), and let him hang himself. Then let
him see whether his strategy dispelleth that whereat he rageth! (22:15).
that Allah will not assist him in this life and the hereafter, let
him stretch a rope to the ceiling, then let him cut (it) off,
then let him see if his struggle will take away that at which he is
Whosoever thinks that God will not help him in
this world and the Hereafter, let him extend (his
request) by a mean to the heaven, then let him cut off
(his dependence on anyone else) and see whether this action has removed
the cause of his anger. (22:15)
Reading the verse within the immediate context of the Quran
alone is sufficient to shed light on its meaning. For instance, just
four verses before, verse 22:11 reminds us of the importance of
unconditional trust in God:
“And from the people there is he who
serves God in alteration. So if good comes to him, he is content with
it; and if an ordeal comes to him, he makes an about-face. He has lost
this world and the Hereafter. Such is the clear loss.” (22:11)
The following verse informs us that those people who oscillate
in their service to God depending on the circumstances, associate
others as partners to God.
“He calls upon besides God what will not harm
him and what will not benefit him. Such is the far straying.”
We learn from the Quran that most polytheists are in
denial (6:23), though they hope for the intercession of prophets and
saints (72:21 and 7:188; 10:49; 13:16; 48:11). The following verse
expresses the reality of idolatrous people:
“He calls on those who harm him more than they
benefit him. What a miserable patron, and what a miserable
Verse 14 mentions God’s blessing on those who
do not pollute their acknowledgement of monotheistic message through
polytheistic ideas and practices:
“God admits those who acknowledge and
do good works to gardens with rivers flowing beneath them. God does as
He wishes.” (22:14)
And the following verse, 22:15, shows them a way: try to
reach God through prayer or charity and cut off all of your dependence
and hope from other things besides God. You should cut off your
dependence to gods or holy people other than God, since you will do so
in the hereafter (2:166). In other words, if you are able to remove all
the idolatrous ideas and dedicate yourself to God alone, you will
witness God’s help and victory. Those who mix monotheism with
idolatry are not of those who acknowledge truth, even if they think so
Thus, starting from verse 11, when we reach verse 15,
the theological relationship among the verses becomes evident, and the
meaning of verse 15 shines clearly. The message of 22:15 is identical
to the message given in 6:41.
Unfortunately, many translations and commentaries ignore
the context of the verse and the usage of certain words in the Quran,
and copy the traditional false inferences and references inside the
After reading these absurd and ridiculous translations
and misleading parentheses, if an investigating person read the
following verse, 22:16, he or she would be repelled from the Quran,
since it asserts that the revelation of the Quran is clear!
The insertion, twisting, and distortion are
not limited to the three examples above. The prominent Pakistani
radical scholar Mawdudi, in his commentary, Tafhim al-Quran (Towards
the Understanding of the Quran), lists six alternative views of
previous commentators on this verse:
- Many add Muhammad’s name in the
parenthesis, though the verse does NOT mention Muhammad and the context
is not about Muhammad, but about God alone.
- Many insert the word
“ceiling,” though sama does not mean
“ceiling,” but rather means
“heaven”; “ceiling” in Arabic
is saqf (43:33; 21:32).
- Many insert a “rope,” though
the verse does not mention “rope,” which is habl
1. Whoever thinks
that God would not help Muhammad (pbuh), should hang himself to a
2. Whoever thinks
that God would not help Muhammad (pbuh), should climb to the sky with a
rope and try to stop God’s help.
3. Whoever thinks
that God would not help Muhammad (pbuh), should ascend to the sky and
stop God’s revelation.
4. Whoever thinks
that God would not help Muhammad (pbuh), should ascend to the sky and
stop God’s blessings to him.
5. Whoever thinks
that God would not help Muhammad (pbuh), should hang himself to the
ceiling of his home.
6. Whoever thinks
that God would not help Muhammad (pbuh), should ascend to sky to ask
Mawdudi finds the first four comments to be meaningless
in their context, since he rightly argues that the pronoun
“he” cannot be referring to Muhammad, but instead
refers to a person who has doubt about God’s help. Though
Mawdudi concedes that the last two renditions fit the flow, he finds
them to be far from reflecting the meaning of the verse. After
rejecting all these alternative interpretations, Mawdudi presents his
fancies that Allah will not help him in this world and in the
Hereafter, let him reach out to heaven through a rope, and then make a
hole in the sky and see whether his device can avert that which enrages
Well, Mawdudi too disappoints; even more than the others. He
asks the doubtful person to get a rope, climb to the sky, and open a
hole in the sky to peep through! However, Mawdudi’s
understanding is better than others who nicely ask the opponents of
Muhammad to commit suicide by hanging themselves to the sky and THEN
think about their feelings and doubts!
Now it is time to challenge all those scholars, mewlahums,
commentators, translators, and their admirers, who missed the obvious
and simple meaning of the verse:
If they think that our reformed translation is wrong, then
they should extend a rope to the sky and hang themselves, and then
think whether this trick of theirs would remove the cause of their
If the above challenge is a meaningful and wise challenge,
then they should take it! No, if it is an absurd and silly challenge,
then they should expunge from their translations the Muhammad, the
rope, the ceiling, the climbing, the hanging, the committing suicide,
the thinking after killing self, and the opening of a peephole in the